One way to easily identify members of the trade organisation who manufactured papers was by using watermarks, initially created by the Europeans. The watermark served as a trademark indicating that the paper was produced by someone, claiming all rights over it.
Wire watermarks are formed by attaching a wire pattern to the mesh of a paper mold. When the paper slurry is drained of its water, the layer of residual fibres over the raised wire pattern is thinner than the rest of the sheet. When pressed and dried, these thinner areas results in patterns that only show clearly when held up to the light.
Relief sculptures impressed into the woven wire fabric of the paper mold generates in light and shade watermarks. Images to be duplicated is first carved in wax before the model is used to cast male and female plates. Heated wire fabric conforms to the shape of the image when it is pressed between the two plates. This method of paper casting produces light and shade design as it is thinner in the raised areas of the image and thicker in the recessed areas.
Summoned as "Dandy-Roll", a paper machine invented in 1825, enabled manufacturers to make watermark on the continuous roll of paper. It made an impression like a watermark by rolling over the damp paper just coming off the wire cloth of the paper machine. Its ability ranges from the simplest to the intricate watermarkings designs.